SAJDVD: VOLUME 13, ISSUE 2, DECEMBER 2016
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  1. From the Editor’s Desk
    Authors: Mahomed, FA
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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  2. Left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease: an echocardiographic study
    Authors: MP Bayauli, FB Lepira, PK Kayembe, JR M’buyamba-Kabangu
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Objective: We assessed left ventricular structural alterations associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Congolese patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a case series. We obtained anthropometric, clinical, biological and echocardiographic measurements in 60 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients (37 females, 62%) aged 20 years or older from the diabetes outpatient clinic, University of Kinshasa Hospital, DRC. We computed creatinine clearance rate according to the MDRD equation and categorised patients into mild (CrCl > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), moderate (CrCl 30–60 ml/ min per 1.73 m2) and severe CKD (< 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was indicated by a LV mass index (LVMI) > 51 g/m2.7 and LV geometry was defined as normal, or with concentric remodelling, eccentric or concentric hypertrophy, using relative wall thickness (RWT) and LVMI.
    Results: Compared to patients with normal kidney function, CKD patients had higher uric acid levels (450 ± 166 vs 306 ± 107 μmol/l; p ≤ 0.001), a greater proportion of LVH (37 vs 14%; p ≤ 0.05) and longstanding diabetes (13 ± 8 vs 8 ± 6 years; p ≤ 0.001). Their left ventricular internal diameter, diastolic (LVIDD) was (47.00 ± 6.00 vs 43.00 ± 7.00 mm; p ≤ 0.001), LVMI was (47 ± 19 vs 36.00 ± 15 g/m2.7; p ≤ 0.05) and proportions of concentric (22 vs 11%; p ≤ 0.05) or eccentric (15 vs 3%; p ≤ 0.05) LVH were also greater. Severe CKD was associated with increased interventricular septum, diastolic (IVSD) (12.30 ± 3.08 vs 9.45 ± 1.94 mm; p ≤ 0.05), posterior wall thickness, diastolic (PWTD) (11.61 ± 2.78 vs 9.52 ± 1.77 mm; p ≤ 0.01), relative wall thickness (RWT) (0.52 ± 0.17 vs 0.40 ± 0.07; p ≤ 0.01) rate of LVH (50 vs 30%; p ≤ 0.05), and elevated proportions of concentric remodelling (25 vs 15%;
    p ≤ 0.05) and concentric LVH (42 vs 10%; p ≤ 0.05) in comparison with patients with moderate CKD. In multivariable adjusted analysis, hyperuricaemia emerged as the only predictor of the presence of LVH in patients with CKD (adjusted OR 9.10; 95% CI: 2.40–33.73).
    Conclusion: In keeping with a higher rate of cardiovascular events usually reported in patients with impaired renal function, CKD patients exhibited LVH and abnormal LV geometry.
     
  3. Cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive effects of Prosopis glandulosa in rat models of pre-diabetes
    Authors: B Huisamen, C George, D Dietrich, S Genade
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Aim: Obesity and type 2 diabetes present with two debilitating complications, namely, hypertension and heart disease. The dried and ground pods of Prosopis glandulosa (commonly known as the Honey mesquite tree) which is part of the Fabaceae (or legume) family are currently marketed in South Africa as a food supplement with blood glucose-stabilising and anti-hypertensive properties. We previously determined its hypoglycaemic effects, and in the current study we determined the efficacy of P glandulosa as anti-hypertensive agent and its myocardial protective ability.
    Methods: Male Wistar rats were rendered either pre-diabetic (diet-induced obesity: DIO) or hypertensive (high-fat diet: HFD). DIO animals were treated with P glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day for the last eight weeks of a 16-week period) and compared to age-matched controls. Hearts were perfused ex vivo to determine infarct size. Biometric parameters were determined at the time of sacrifice. Cardiac-specific insulin receptor knock-out (CIRKO) mice were similarly treated with P glandulosa and infarct size was determined. HFD animals were treated with P glandulosa from the onset of the diet or from weeks 12–16, using captopril (50 mg/kg/day) as the positive control. Blood pressure was monitored weekly.
    Results: DIO rats and CIRKO mice: P glandulosa ingestion significantly reduced infarct size after ischaemia–reperfusion. Proteins of the PI-3-kinase/PKB/Akt survival pathway were affected in a manner supporting cardioprotection. HFD model: P glandulosa treatment both prevented and corrected the development of hypertension, which was also reflected in alleviation of water retention.
    Conclusion: P glandulosa was cardioprotective and infarct sparing as well as anti-hypertensive without affecting the body weight or the intra-peritoneal fat depots of the animals. Changes in the PI-3-kinase/PKB/Akt pathway may be causal to protection. Results indicated water retention, possibly coupled to vasoconstriction in the HFD animals, while ingestion of P glandulosa alleviated both. We concluded that treatment of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes or hypertension with P glandulosa poses possible beneficial health effects.
     
  4. Efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in coronary artery disease patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis
    Authors: Yanxiang Qiao, Yuan Bian, Xianliang Yan, Zhenfang Liu, Yuguo Chen
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Objective: To compare by meta-analysis the efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting and bare-metal stents in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes.
    Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1971 to 2012. Data on the efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting and bare-metal stents in patients with diabetes were collected. A meta-analysis was then performed on a total of 1 259 CAD patients with diabetes from six studies. The odds ratio (OR) was used for comparison. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the sample size, year of study, subjects’ geographic area and study method.
    Results: Compared with those in the bare-metal stent group (BMS), the subjects in the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) group had a reduced risk for major cardiac events [OR 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 024–0.74, p < 0.01] and target-lesion revascularisation (OR 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11–0.59, p < 0.01). There was no difference for myocardial infarction (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.61–1.40, p > 0.05) or mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74–1.92, p > 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed a significant difference for overall risk of major cardiac events between SES and BMS when the sample size was ≤ 90 (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.16–0.48,
    p < 0.01), when it was a randomized control trial (RCT) (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.19–0.42, p < 0.01), or when it was performed on European subjects (OR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27–0.77, p < 0.01). The sensitivity was not different when one study was removed at a time.
    Conclusion: Our study confirmed that SES are safer and more effective than BMS in CAD patients with diabetes, as far as major cardiac events are concerned.

  5. The protective effect of topical rifamycin treatment against sternal wound infection in diabetic patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery
    Authors: Fatih Aygun, Ahmet Kuzgun, Seref Ulucan, Ahmet Keser, Mahmut Akpek, Mehmet G Kaya
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of topical rifamycin SV treatment against sternal wound infection (SWI) in diabetic patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
    Methods: One hundred and fifty-nine diabetic patients who were scheduled to undergo isolated on-pump CABG surgery were included. Eight were excluded for various reasons. Of the 151 patients, 51 were on insulin therapy and 100 were on oral anti-diabetics. The risk of mediastinitis was assessed using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2004 guideline update for CABG surgery. According to the risk scores, patients were divided into two comparable groups: the rifamycin group (n = 78) received topical rifamycin treatment after on-pump CABG surgery, and the control group (n = 73) received no topical treatment.
    Results: Deep sternal wound infection (mediastinitis) was not observed in either group (0/78 vs 0/73, p = 1.0). No superficial sternal wound infection was observed in the rifamycin group, however, it did occur in one patient in the control group (0/78 vs 1/73, p = 0.303). Wound culture was performed and coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed. The infection regressed on initiation of antibiotic therapy against isolated bacteria and the patient was discharged after a full recovery.
    Conclusion: Although the difference in rate of superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) in the rifamycin and control groups was not statistically significant, locally applied rifamycin SV during closure of the sternum in the CABG operation may have had a protective affect against SWI.

  6. Mean platelet volume is associated with myocardial perfusion defect in diabetic patients
    Authors:S Sarikaya, S Sahin, L Akyol, E Borekci, YK Yilmaz, F Altunkas, K Karaman, S Karacavus, AR Erbay
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Aim: Our aim was to evaluate whether there was a relationship between mean platelet volume and myocardial perfusion defect in diabetic patients using myocardial perfusion imaging.
    Method: Forty-four diabetic patients with myocardial perfusion defect (group 1) and 44 diabetic patients without myocardial perfusion defect (group 2), matched for age and gender, were retrospectively examined. Levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) in the two groups were assessed.
    Results: MPV was higher in group 1 than group 2 patients (8.76 ± 0.76 and 8.25 ± 0.78 fl), respectively, p = 0.003). Levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, haemoglobin (Hb) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and body mass index (BMI) in the two groups were not statistically significantly different. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that MPV was the only variable independently associated with myocardial perfusion defects (OR: 2.401, 95% CI: 1.298–4.440, p = 0.013).
    Conclusion: This study showed that higher MPV was associated with myocardial perfusion defects. Higher MPV in diabetic patients was independently related to myocardial perfusion defects and may be an indicator of myocardial ischaemia.

  7. Once fat was fat and that was that: our changing perspectives on adipose tissue
    Authors: WF Ferris, NJ Crowther
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Abstract: Past civilisations saw excess body fat as a symbol of wealth and prosperity as the general population struggled with food shortages and famine. Nowadays it is recognised that obesity is associated with co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Our views on the role of adipose tissue have also changed, from being solely a passive energy store, to an important endocrine organ that modulates metabolism, immunity and satiety. The relationship between increased visceral adiposity and obesity-related co-morbidities has lead to the recognition that variation in fat distribution contributes to ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity-related diseases. Our current negative view of adipose tissue may change with the use of pluripotent adipose-derived stromal cells, which may lead to future autologous stem cell therapies for bone, muscle, cardiac and cartilage disorders. Here, we briefly review the concepts that adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, that differences in body fat distribution underline the aetiology of obesity-related co-morbidities, and the use of adipose-derived stem cells for future therapies.

  8. Epidemiology of ischaemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa
    Authors: CL Onen
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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    Background: The epidemiology of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains largely enigmatic. Major obstacles to our understanding of the condition include lack of reliable health statistics, particularly cause, specific mortality data, inadequate diagnostic capabilities, shortage of physicians and cardiologists, and misguided opinions.
    Methods: This review of the epidemiology of ischaemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa involved a systematic bibliographic MEDLINE search of published data on IHD in SSA over the past century. Search words included epidemiology, ischaemic (coronary) heart disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular risk factors and sub-Saharan Africa. Selected data are presented on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality from ischaemic heart disease from different countries representing the main regions of the continent.
    Results: Although IHD in SSA remains relatively uncommon, its prevalence is predicted to rise in the next two decades due to the rising prevalence of risk factors, especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, increased tobacco use and dyslipidaemia. It is estimated that age-standardised mortality rates for IHD will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015, and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030.
    Conclusion: Ischaemic heart disease remains relatively uncommon in SSA, despite an increasing prevalence of risk factors, but its incidence is rising. The pace and direction of economic development, rates of urbanisation, and changes in life expectancy resulting from the impact of pre-transitional
    diseases and violence will be major determinants of the IHD epidemic in SSA. The best window of opportunity for prevention of the emerging epidemic of ischaemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa is now.
     
  9. Consensus Guideline: SASCI/SCTSSA joint consensus statement and guidelines on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in South Africa
    Authors: J Scherman , H Weich
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 13, Issue 2, Dec 2016
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