SAJDVD: VOLUME 2, ISSUE 1, MARCH 2005
  1. Title: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in developing countries : editorial
    Authors: Vorster, H.H.; Kruger, Annamarie; Wright, Hester H.; Opperman, Maretha
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.3-4
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  2. Title: CDE presents a three-day advanced course in diabetes care for health professionals : editorial
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.4
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  3. Title: Dietary challenges for optimal control of type 2 diabetes : editorial
    Authors: Opperman, Maretha; Wright, Hester H.; Kruger, Annamarie
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.6-8
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  4. Title: The importance of diet in type 1 diabetes : editorial
    Authors: Ernest, Jean; Moore, Ray
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.9-11
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  5. Title: Fad diets in diabetes : review
    Authors: Baldwin, Eleanor J.
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.12-16
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    Abstract: Weight reduction is notoriously difficult to achieve and may be more difficult to attain in people with diabetes on insulin therapy and insulin secretagogues. People with diabetes may turn to fad diet books to help them lose weight. The most popular diet books are The Atkins Diet, The South Beach Diet, The pH Diet, The Blood Group Diets and The Zone. The main features of these diets are reviewed herein. The safety of some of these diets is questionable and their use is debatable.
     
  6. Title: Current status of the development of inhaled insulin : review
    Authors: Heinemann, Lutz; Heise, Tim
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.17-23
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    Abstract: The most promising alternative route of insulin administration seems to be pulmonary delivery by inhalation. For a maximal rate of absorption insulin must be applied deep into the lung, i.e., into the alveoli. A number of inhalers designed to generate an aerosol with an appropriate particle size for pulmonary delivery are currently in clinical development. The pharmacodynamic effects of insulin formulations administered via the lung are comparable to, or are even faster than, those of subcutaneously injected regular insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogues. The relative biopotency of inhaled insulin is approximately 10%, i.e., the dose of inhaled insulin must be 10 times higher than the dose applied subcutaneously in order to induce a comparable metabolic effect. Clinical trials indicate that metabolic control with this pain free route of insulin administration is at least comparable to that of subcutaneous (sc) insulin therapy. Side effects observed in human trials, gave rise to safety concerns that have delayed development for several years. Nevertheless, recent long-term safety studies indicate that the increased stimulation of insulin antibody formation stopped after some time and that the observed changes in lung function were minor or reversible. Consequently the first application for an approval of pulmonary insulin has been submitted to the authorities. In summary, it seems as if, after several decades of research, for the first time a feasible alternative route for insulin administration is within reach.
     
  7. Title: The evolution of insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes : the advent of analogues : review
    Authors: Gallen, Ian
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.24-27
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    Abstract: Treating patients with type 1 diabetes to nearnormal glycaemic levels significantly reduces the risk of microvascular complications and improves patient outcomes. Consequently, achieving and maintaining optimal glycaemic control is a key therapeutic aim and clear guidance regarding glycaemic targets now exists. The challenge is to achieve this level of control in routine clinical practice whilst minimising the treatment-related adverse events of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. The development of both rapid- and long-acting insulin analogues offers the potential to meet this challenge, with results from clinical trials indicating that analogue insulins have therapeutic benefits over older insulin preparations. However, it is important to see if these benefits can be repeated in non-clinical trial patient populations and, therefore, this article summarises the results from prospective audits of introducing insulin lispro and insulin glargine into routine clinical practice in patients with type 1 diabetes.
     
  8. Title: Assessment of postprandial glucose : relationship between a standardised continental breakfast and the oral glucose tolerance test : achieving best practice
    Authors: Golay, Alain; Guitard, Christiane; Hoyer, Monique; Logan, John O.; Brunel, Patrick C.
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.28-31
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    Abstract: Background : To determine the relationship between postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin values after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a standardised continental breakfast.
    Methods : An open, single-centre, randomised, crossover study in 32 fasted patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 healthy volunteers. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations following a standardised breakfast challenge and a 75 g OGTT were measured over two hours.
    Results : In both groups, the standardised breakfast induced similar plasma glucose and insulin profiles to the OGTT. Mean PPG excursions at each time-point were 1-2 mmol/L greater following the OGTT than the breakfast. Two-hour OGTT glucose levels correlated highly (r > 0.80) with those following the breakfast at all time-points between 0.5-2 hours.
    Conclusion : Plasma glucose levels measured 0.5-2 hours following a standardised breakfast are useful for assessing postprandial hyperglycaemia for diagnostic or post-treatment evaluations.
     
  9. Title: Weight gain and insulin therapy : healthcare management
    Authors: Khan, Rehman
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.32-35
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    Abstract: Weight gain is common with insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Excessive weight gain worsens glycaemic control and increases cardiovascular risk. It can also increase diabetic morbidity and mortality if it acts as a psychological barrier to initiation or intensification of insulin therapy, or affects compliance. Insulin-associated weight gain might result from conservation of previously excreted glucose, defensive 'snacking' caused by fear or experience of hypoglycaemia, or the 'unphysiological' pharmacokinetic profiles that follow sc insulin administration. Strategies to limit insulin-mediated weight gain include increasing insulin sensitivity through dietary modification, exercise or insulin sensitising drugs. Attempts to replace insulin using regimens that accurately mimic physiological norms should also enable insulin to be dosed with maximum efficiency. The novel analogue insulin, detemir, has not shown the usual propensity for weight gain. Elucidation of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this property could further clarify mechanisms linking insulin with weight regulation.
     
  10. Title: The 'polypill' to reduce cardiovascular risk : proof of concept : healthcare management
    Authors: Patel, Vinod; Pedersen, Oluf; Morrissey, John; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Gaede, Peter; Lee, James Douglas
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.36-38
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  11. Title: Allopurinol and diabetes - a personal perspective : healthcare management
    Authors: Gibson, Alan C.
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.39
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  12. Title: Prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetics : drug trends in diabetes
    Authors: Maritz, Frans J.
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.40, 42
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  13. Title: ActosTM maintains effective long-term glucose control in type 2 diabetes : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.42
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  14. Title: Type 2 diabetes - initiating insulin therapy earlier : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.43, 45
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  15. Title: INITIATE : NovoMix(R) 30 shows improved blood glucose control compared with insulin glargine : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.45
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  16. Title: Preventing early renal disease in type 2 diabetes : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.46-47
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  17. Title: Decrease in heart attack and stroke after 'bad' cholesterol reduced to very low levels : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.48-49
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  18. Title: New 80-mg Lipitor(R) : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.49
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  19. Title: Blood glucose test results in 10 seconds : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.50
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  20. Title: New security packaging identifies authentic Viagra(R) from counterfeits : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.51
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  21. Title: ASCOT study shows 30% fewer cases of new-onset diabetes in patients taking perindopril / amlodipine : drug trends in diabetes
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 2, Issue 1, Mar / Apr
    Published: 2005
    Pages: p.52
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