SAJDVD: VOLUME 7, ISSUE 3, SEPTEMBER 2010
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  1. Diabetes and the eye : editorial
    Authors: Mahomed, F.A.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 91
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    Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is an important microvascular complication of diabetes and remains one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide among adults. In relatively low-resource countries such as South Africa, it is important to establish a clear cost-effective strategy to tackle both preventative as well as curative aspects of the management of diabetic eye disease.
     
  2. P-values: what are they? : editorial
    Authors: Upton, J.; McCutcheon, E.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 92
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    Abstract: P-values are commonly included in the results sections of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but what is a P-value and how should it be interpreted?

  3. What's new in diabetic retinopathy? : review
    Authors: Visser, Linda; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 93-98
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    Abstract: What is new in diabetic retinopathy? In short - not that much! Most of what we know about diabetic retinopathy and the management of patients with diabetic retinopathy is based on extensive research and multicentre trials performed in the 1970s and 1980s, and laser treatment remains the gold standard. Newer treatments, such as intra-vitreal injections are mostly used as adjuncts to laser therapy. Indications for surgery (vitrectomy) have increased over the years as retinal imaging equipment, intraoperative instrumentation, viewing systems and surgical outcomes have improved.

  4. International expert committee recommends new role for HbA1c in diagnosing diabetes : review
    Authors: Kirby, Michael; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 99-101
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    Abstract: Glycated haemoglobin - HbA1c, or A1c as it is now being called - should be used to diagnose diabetes, according to a recent recommendation from an international expert committee appointed by the American Diabetes Association, the International Diabetes Federation and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. This review explores the basis for this recommendation, looking at why HbA1c would provide a more accurate measure for diagnosing diabetes than glucose tests and what the change would mean in clinical practice.

  5. Metabolic memory in type 1 diabetes : review
    Authors: Wright, Alex D.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 102-104
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    Abstract: Metabolic memory and its possible mechanisms are reviewed. In clinical practice in type 1 diabetes the concept of metabolic memory has developed largely from the observations of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, which followed the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). In the former intensive treatment group, after 10 years follow up, when glycated haemoglobin levels had converged completely, there was less progression of retinopathy and lower rates of proliferative retinopathy. Diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy were similarly reduced. The combined DCCT and EDIC studies showed a reduction in the risk of any cardiovascular disease. Good early metabolic control affects outcome for at least 10 years and it is hoped this information can be translated into clinical practice to reduce significantly the burden of long-term complications.

  6. National Diabetes Information Service offers support : review
    Authors: Young, Bob; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 105-106
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    Abstract: The National Diabetes Information Service (NDIS) has been established to support everyone involved in diabetes care. Led by the NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care, its initial aim is to maximise the value that can be yielded from existing data sources about diabetes. In the longer term, it will also support the generation of useful new data about diabetes. Its intention is to bring these data sources together in such a way as to deliver benefit.

  7. Book giveaway
    Authors: Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 106
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    Abstract: Eating for Sustained Energy 4 by Gabi Steenkamp and Liesbet Delport.

  8. Metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed non-diabetic hypertensive Nigerians: prevalence and clinical correlates : research article
    Authors: Akintunde, A.A.; Ayodele, O.E.; Akinwusi, P.O.; Peter, J.O.; Opadijo, O.G.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 107-110
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    Abstract: Background: Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular risk factor worldwide. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors has been noted to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Reports of the metabolic syndrome among African hypertensive subjects are scarce.
    Methods: One hundred and forty newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and 70 apparently healthy controls were recruited consecutively for this study. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed using a pre-tested data-collection form. Fasting blood sugar and fasting serum lipid level were determined. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP ATP III criteria. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Intergroup comparisons were done using the t-test and chi square as appropriate.
    Results: Hypertensive and control subjects were similar in age (55.14 ± 10.83 vs 54.67 ± 10.89 years, p = 0.8) and gender distribution [female 75 (53.6%) vs male 37 (52.9%), p = 0.3]. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 44 (31.4%) of the hypertensive subjects and 11 (15.7%) of the controls. Systolic blood pressure, body mass index and prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy were higher among subjects with the metabolic syndrome than those without it. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with age and was more common among female subjects.
    Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high among newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects in Osogbo, Nigeria. It was however lower than that described among many Caucasian populations. The presence of the metabolic syndrome in Nigerian hypertensive subjects is closely related to and influenced by demographic and clinical factors.

  9. Diabetes - a lifestyle, not a disease : diabetes personality
    Authors: Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 111-112
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    Abstract: Viv Skinner and his wife, Ruby, are two of the lynchpins of the Pietermaritzburg branch of Diabetes SA, along with their colleagues, Felicity Giles and Sheila Pillay. They give their services free of charge and are well known in the community for their commitment to diabetes education and support.

  10. The 'Changing Diabetes' bus will now screen for retinopathy and diabetic foot syndrome : community initiative
    Authors: Published: 2010

    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 113
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    Abstract: After three successful years of raising diabetes awareness among the general population and healthcare professionals alike, the Novo Nordisk's 'Changing Diabetes' bus is expanding its services to include screening for complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and diabetic foot syndrome. These new services on board will facilitate the early diagnosis of these common complications, with a view to optimising current therapy and thus improving outcomes.

  11. South African approaches to structured education in type 1 diabetes : diabetes educator's focus
    Authors: Beckert, Kamaretha; Van der Merwe, Laurie; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 114-116
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    Abstract: We as specialised diabetes nurse educators encounter many obstacles when educating patients on effective management of their condition. Often people with diabetes are confused as a result of unstructured or incomplete education on their condition and therefore cannot maintain optimal health and a good quality of life. There may be underlying emotional or stress-related issues that should be addressed before patients can become self-motivated with regard to managing their disease. Much needs to be done in South Africa to improve education and care of people with diabetes.

  12. Laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy : keep and copy series : patient information leaflet
    Authors: Visser, Linda; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 117-118
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    Abstract: Laser is the acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The laser machine generates a powerful light beam consisting of a single wavelength of light.

  13. Use of the retinal camera in diabetes eye care in South Africa : hands on
    Authors: Ladner, Grant; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 119-121
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    Abstract: This article outlines the rationale for a screening programme for diabetic retinopathy. This includes an understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the need for early intervention to prevent blindness. It explains the requirements for such a screening programme to function properly, including the need to train staff, use the correct equipment and have an appropriate follow-up and referral protocol and quality control. The main purpose of the article is to advocate for a pilot project so that the resources are in place when a comprehensive programme is instituted. Such a programme will require the commitment of the medical profession, government and civil society in order to function properly.

  14. 2010 update from Orlando, USA, 25-29 June 2010 : ADA Watch
    Authors: Aalbers, J.; Mahomed, F.; Mollentze, W.F.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 123-126
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    Abstract:
    Clinical trial updates
    Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes
    Diabetes therapy
    Reducing complications ofdiabetes

  15. Journal update : retinopathy focus : abstracts
    Authors: Aalbers, J.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 127-129
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    Abstract:
    Journal update : retinopathy focus

  16. Novo Nordisk update meeting at CDE : drug trends in diabetes
    Authors: Aalbers, J.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 131
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    Abstract:
    The weight of diabetes: South African opinion leaders set a new clinical framework
    Looking at weight gain and how to get patients to lose weight in a NEW context was the theme of the Novo Nordisk/Life Scan-sponsored forum at the CDE meeting in Johannesburg last month.

  17. Aspirin in primary prevention : focus on people with diabetes : drug trends in diabetes
    Authors: Aalbers, J.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 132
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    Abstract: An expert consensus view on the use of aspirin in patients with diabetes has just been published and provides an excellent overview of aspirin trials in diabetic patients.

  18. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes : a prelude to cardiovascular disease : drug trends in diabetes
    Authors: Aalbers, J.; Published: 2010
    From: South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, Vol 7, Issue 3, Sep, Pages: 132
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    Abstract: Erectile dysfunction (ED) occurs in 80% of diabetic men over 60 years of age, due to both endothelial and neurological abnormalities. Early and vigorous glucose control may prevent erectile dysfunction. In addition, early statin use and the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors may help to preserve the endothelial function in diabetic men, according to a recent expert committee review of the worldwide literature concerning erectile dysfunction, coronary artery disease and diabetes.
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